rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss

golden hamster

Mesocricetus auratus


Million Years Ago (TTOL)
Mean: 429.00 Mya
Median: 429.00 Mya


rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss

golden hamster

Mesocricetus auratus
429.0 Million Years Ago (TTOL)

429.0 Mya (median, 36 studies)

Click on timescale or black dots for more info.

Molecular Time Estimates

*Note: If you would like to suggest your publication for inclusion, and it is not yet in TimeTree (see list of studies), you can send us the reference information for the publication using the contact page.

Time Reference Year
440.2 Cassemiro et al. 2023
420.7 Tims et al. 2021
390.4 Li et al. 2018
418.3 Delsuc et al. 2018
440.2 Hughes et al. 2018
432.4 dos Reis et al. 2015
424.8 Betancur-R et al. 2015
443.0 Wei et al. 2014
426.8 Betancur-R et al. 2013
435.0 Aris-Brosou et al. 2013
424.5 Johnson et al. 2012
250.0 Liu et al. 2012
424.2 Chen et al. 2012
420.0 Shen et al. 2012
469.4 Crottini et al. 2012
420.4 Meredith et al. 2011
435.6 Saitoh et al. 2011
444.2 Nakatani et al. 2011
347.8 Berbee et al. 2010
422.0 Sudarto et al. 2010
432.7 Roelants et al. 2010
467.2 Pyron et al. 2010
419.0 Inoue et al. 2010
423.3 Santini et al. 2009
460.8 Setiamarga et al. 2009
427.8 Alfaro et al. 2009
440.0 Inoue et al. 2009
454.6 Hedges et al. 2009
429.0 Azuma et al. 2008
459.2 Blair et al. 2005
438.0 Inoue et al. 2005
476.0 Blair et al. 2005
368.0 Douzery et al. 2004

CAUTION: We recommend that the users carefully examine individual study results provided before using summary information.

How It Works

Two species or higher taxa are queried (e.g., cat and dog).

TimeTree looks for these species in the TTOL to find their most recent common ancestor and produces the time estimate available. All studies with published times of divergence for that evolutionary split are shown in a Table format. When one or both of the species are not present in TTOL, the NCBI taxonomy is scanned to find the closest relatives of the species or higher taxa requested by the user. Then, those taxa are used as proxies and the most recent common ancestor identified to generate the final time estimates.



The TimeTree of Life from an assembly of all individual timetrees from the Time Tree of Life book. Order an offset print or download the file to print your own.


On our Results page, you can download all individual time estimates and study data associated with the query. The iPhone and iPad apps, and all chapters of the Timetree of Life book, can be downloaded by using their respective links. In addition, we will soon make available a facility to download timetrees consisting of multiple species, where users will also be able to input their own species trees. These facilities will be available for a large number of species (>50,000 species) as soon as we complete the processing and synthesis of results from over 2000 studies into this resource. In the meantime, we provide the >50,000-species timetree of life as a download here.

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