Million Years Ago (TTOL)
Mean: 291.42 Mya
Median: 291.42 Mya



291.4 Million Years Ago (TTOL)

291.4 Mya (median, 32 studies)

Click on timescale or black dots for more info.

Molecular Time Estimates

*Note: If you would like to suggest your publication for inclusion, and it is not yet in TimeTree (see list of studies), you can send us the reference information for the publication using the contact page.

Time Reference Year
272.3 Hime et al. 2020
181.5 Kieren et al. 2018
325.8 Delsuc et al. 2018
271.7 Laurin et al. 2018
321.7 Mahony et al. 2017
270.7 Feng et al. 2017
262.5 Pyron et al. 2014
302.5 Roquet et al. 2014
250.0 Aris-Brosou et al. 2013
300.0 Bonett et al. 2013
280.3 Zhang et al. 2013
290.9 Irisarri et al. 2012
344.4 Crottini et al. 2012
281.9 Shen et al. 2012
294.9 Shen et al. 2011
292.0 Pyron et al. 2011
266.6 Ruane et al. 2011
292.5 San Mauro et al. 2010
305.7 Pyron et al. 2010
247.4 Blackburn et al. 2010
232.8 Alfaro et al. 2009
265.0 Zhang et al. 2009
264.0 Hedges et al. 2009
339.1 Santos et al. 2009
318.0 Igawa et al. 2008
274.0 Hugall et al. 2007
322.0 Vieites et al. 2007
263.0 Marjanović et al. 2007
332.9 Roelants et al. 2007
308.0 Zhang et al. 2005
321.0 Zhang et al. 2005
357.0 San Mauro et al. 2005

CAUTION: We recommend that the users carefully examine individual study results provided before using summary information.

How It Works

Two species or higher taxa are queried (e.g., cat and dog).

TimeTree looks for these species in the TTOL to find their most recent common ancestor and produces the time estimate available. All studies with published times of divergence for that evolutionary split are shown in a Table format. When one or both of the species are not present in TTOL, the NCBI taxonomy is scanned to find the closest relatives of the species or higher taxa requested by the user. Then, those taxa are used as proxies and the most recent common ancestor identified to generate the final time estimates.



The TimeTree of Life from an assembly of all individual timetrees from the Time Tree of Life book. Order an offset print or download the file to print your own.


On our Results page, you can download all individual time estimates and study data associated with the query. The iPhone and iPad apps, and all chapters of the Timetree of Life book, can be downloaded by using their respective links. In addition, we will soon make available a facility to download timetrees consisting of multiple species, where users will also be able to input their own species trees. These facilities will be available for a large number of species (>50,000 species) as soon as we complete the processing and synthesis of results from over 2000 studies into this resource. In the meantime, we provide the >50,000-species timetree of life as a download here.

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